1 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N P S T W Y Z


country, people | part of: encyclopedia/culture
Pronounced: \mek-si-koh\ | IPA: /ˈmɛk sɪ koʊ/

Definition of México

México is a republic of 31 states situated on the southern portion of the North American continent, it is bounded on the north by the United States of America, on the east by the Gulf of Mexico (Atlantic Ocean), on the southeast by the Guatemala and Belize, and to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean. The capital is Mexico City, and total area of Mexico is 761,606 sq mi. Comparatively, the area occupied by Mexico is 6 times larger than the US State of New Mexico.

The 31 states are Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Zacatecas, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, and Yucatán.

Examples of México in Nuevo México

Mexico has a consulate in Albuquerque, and foreign relations between New Mexico and Mexico are maintained through the international relations of the United States of America and Mexico.

Mexican influence can be found in the New Mexican cultural hallmarks, such as New Mexican cuisine and New Mexico music, shared early development period by Neomejicano and Pueblo communities during the first Mexican Empire and Republic. Furthermore, Chicano and Mexican-American culture is heavily represented and celebrated throughout New Mexico, fiestas and parades celebrating the Day of the Dead are held throughout the state, in the state capital of Santa Fe and especially in big cities such as Albuquerque and Las Cruces.

Thriving from the early 1800s to today, the culture of Mexico is distinguished by their folk arts from the Aztec, Maya, and Spanish, vibrant colors, and foods. When the colonies of New Spain gained their independence during the Mexican War of Independence, Santa Fe de Nuevo México ceased to be an independent colony and joined the First Mexican Republic. New Mexico remained a Mexican state for only twenty years, but the effect of Mexican statehood was profound on New Mexican culture.

It has remained a powerful force alongside other prominent modern cultures in New Mexico alongside Pueblo, Neomejicano, Apache, Navajo, and America. The Mexican culture within New Mexico is most prominent in relation to the culture surrounding the territorial phase.  In particular due to the fact that most New Mexicans equivocate the territorial era with the era of the Wild West. This created a strong tie of the Western frontier with Mexican and American culture, the cowboy (vaquero/buckaroo) is an idealized character within the state.

Origin of Mexico

The Mexican culture originates in 1810 during a “loyalist revolt” lead by priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, from Dolores, Guanajuato. After Miguel was executed by firing squad, the mantle of the revolt was passed to another priest, José María Morelos, in 1811. The Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America, was signed in 1813. José was executed in 1815. The Spanish Crown signed the “Treaty of Córdoba”, and recognized the “Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire” in August 24, 1821. The short-lived First Mexican Empire lasted until 1823, which was followed by the Centralist Republic of Mexico.

New Mexico and Mexico have an interwoven history since both were formed from New Spain, New Mexico took part in the Mexican War of Independence and the establishment of the first Mexican Empire and the Mexican Republic. It became involved in the rebellions, caused by the lack of representation by the Centralist Republic of Mexico which involved not only New Mexico, but also Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Texas, Zacatecas, that formed the Republic of the Rio Grande, and finally the independence of the state of Yucatán; which lead to many still relevent events, such as development on New Mexico as an American territory and state, the continued “Free and Sovereign” culture of Zacatecas, as well as the temporary independence of Tabasco, Texas, and the conglomeration of Coahuila, Nuevo León and Tamaulipas as the Republic of the Rio Grande. New Mexico itself became one of the focal points of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, in that Texas was forced to drop any land claim to the agreed territory of New Mexico and that Chicano, Neomejicano, and Pueblo town’s citizenry received representation, both legally and culturally, during the American territorial phase.

Both Mexico and New Mexico owe their naming to indigenous peoples, New Mexico was names first when Spanish explorers explored northward up the Río Bravo del Norte. They came into contact with the Pueblo peoples, whom were themselves named for their advanced city-states they built and lived in; the Pueblo’s advanced civilization was equated to the prowess of the Aztec Empire (Méxica), which lead to the naming of the land of the Nuevo México (New Aztecs). Mexico was given its name by patriotic Mexicans, proud of their Aztec heritage.

Alternate spellings exist; Mexico, Estados Unidos Mexicanos.
First Known Use: 18th century