The de facto language of New Mexico is English, specifically American English, which is spoken by 64% of the population. The Spanish language is also a recognized language in New Mexico, the de jure language within the state, ballots and certain legal notices require repetition in both English and Spanish; as the Spanish language is spoken by nearly 28.5% of the population. There are several other living languages indigenous to the state spoken by 5.2% of the population, prominent in and around Pueblos and on Reservations, In addition, various English regional dialects, and numerous languages are spoken by recent immigrant populations. New Mexico has granted special recognition of the Spanish language, and large amount of Native American language speakers, the state passed an “English Plus” resolution which helped push for bilingual education, and encourages proficiency in more than just English, as well as the cultivation of the multitude of living languages and dialects native to New Mexico.

The most common American English and Latin American Spanish dialects spoken are New Mexican English and New Mexican Spanish, which are contact dialects with one another and the multitude of other languages and dialects within the state. The other languages that influence NM English and Spanish include other neighboring American English dialects were Southwestern American English (including Arizonan English, Californian English, Navajo English, and Texan English), Midwestern American English, Western American English, and Southern American English. Native American languages in New Mexico represent another set of influences on communication, especially the Navajo language, Keresan languages, Zuni language, and Apache languages.